ウェビナー「Discourse and Politics of Citizenship Education in Asia」
九州大学ユネスコチェア「平和、社会正義、グローバル市民のための教育」（UNESCO Chair on Education for Peace, Social Justice and Global Citizenship）は2021年4月に設置されました（Chair holder: Edward Vickers 教授・人間環境学研究院教育学部門）。
その事業の一環として、アジアのシティズンシップ教育に関するウェビナー「Discourse and Politics of Citizenship Education in Asia」を開催いたします。皆さまのご参加を心よりお待ち申し上げます。
While the characteristics of citizenship education in Asia are often noted, there is no lack of rhetorical resemblance between Asian and international discourses of citizenship education. This webinar brings together presentations to give critical context-specific appraisals of the internationally recognizable rhetorics in domestic citizenship education discourses in Asian societies. By discussing rhetorics and the politics behind rhetorics, this webinar engages both Asian and international citizenship education discourses and debates.
Dr Sicong Chen, Department of Education, Kyushu University
Dr Jasmine B.-Y. Sim, National Institute of Education, Singapore
Dr Thomas K.‐C. Tse, Chinese University of Hong Kong
Dr Yuka Kitayama, Osaka University
Mr XingXing Wang, Education University of Hong Kong
Ms Haruna Kasai, Kyushu University
Development of citizenship education in Singapore: Tensions and possibilities
Dr Jasmine B.-Y. Sim (National Institute of Education, Singapore)
Singapore is a small city-state whose success owes much to the role that formal citizenship education played and continues to play as an instrument of state formation. The mission of the education service in Singapore is, ‘To mould the future of the nation by moulding the people who will determine our future’. Notably, few governments have pursued the case for compulsory citizenship education in the school system with as much tenacity and vigour as that of Singapore. This presentation will discuss the development of citizenship education in post-independent Singapore. I will trace how the citizenship education curriculum evolved from a transmissionist approach, socializing the young into the norms of the Singapore society and a particular national identity, to an approach that increasingly emphasizes active citizenship. The current citizenship education curriculum envisions students as informed, concerned and participative citizens. As an example, I illustrate how the social studies curriculum has attended to the reformulation of the ideal citizen and highlight the tensions that emerged. But happily, tensions offer the possibility to develop a more sustainable form of active citizenship. To this end, I propose a critically-reflexive conception of citizenship, one that attests to our ability to act, to create new ways of being and relating; that is, we are active in shaping our surroundings, to take circumstances and relationships into consideration rather than merely reacting to them.
Recent changes in Hong Kong since 2019
Dr Thomas K.‐C. Tse (Chinese University of Hong Kong)
Education has often been entangled with politics. The years 2019-2020 saw a turning point in Hong Kong history. In response to the mass movement against the anti-fugitive law amendment bill, in the end, Beijing has unilaterally imposed and strictly enforced the National Security Law in Hong Kong to restore order from social unrest. Important steps in overhauling Hong Kong SAR’s education system were also taken, as the Hong Kong government has stepped up its efforts with a wide-ranging measure to promote ‘national education’ and legal rule, hoping to bring the local education system back on a track that is compatible with the ‘one country, two systems’ principle as defined by the central government. With the enactment of a national anthem law and other new regulations, beginning from kindergartens to senior secondary schools, students need to attend patriotic ceremonies regularly and are taught more about Chinese history and culture, the national constitution, the Basic Law and the National Security Law. The controversial senior secondary level subject ‘Liberal Studies’ has been replaced by ‘Citizenship and Social Development. The Education Bureau has taken stringent actions against teachers’ misconduct, including cancelling their registration. Teachers and principals also have to undergo stricter training upon their appointments, during service and before promotion. Together these measures represent a trend of centralization and an end of confrontational politics in the education sector. My presentation will report these latest changes and discuss their educational implications.
Interpretation of Citizenship Education in Japan: Controlling or empowering?
Dr Yuka Kitayama (Osaka University)
Since its introduction as a compulsory subject in English secondary schools in 2002, Citizenship Education has attracted attention from Japanese educators and researchers in fields such as social studies education, international education, theoretical sociology, and youth and welfare studies. This paper examines how Citizenship Education has been interpreted and recontextualised by Japanese researchers especially those in the field of education. Through a systematic literature review, it scrutinises what features of Citizenship Education have been emphasised, underemphasised, or ignored by Japanese scholars, comparing them to the English National Curriculum and two key policy papers, namely Crick Report and Ajegbo Report. In order to illustrate the educational borrowing of Citizenship Education in Japan, it examines the recontextualisation of the aims, curriculum guidelines, and content of Citizenship Education, focusing on specific keywords related to social justice, such as human rights, colonialism/imperialism, immigration, gender equality, and citizens’ rights and responsibilities.
Revisit to the failure of national identity education to Hong Kong youth: An empirical study from the political socialization perspective
Mr XingXing Wang (Education University of Hong Kong)
The past decade saw the decline of national identity and escalated social movements among Hong Kong youth alongside intensified Chinese nation-building project with national education and related activities in Hong Kong. We attempt to explore this puzzle by probing the political socialization factors, namely family, school, peers and media, surrounding Hong Kong youth which may be the competitive elements against the Chinese nation-building agenda. With analysing data of 1240 questionnaires collected from students of Form 3-6 in four schools in Hong Kong, this study preliminarily verifies that the experiences of national education and related activities have no evident association with adolescents’ national identity on one hand and on the other, it concludes that the factors of family, peers and local media jointly countered the identification with Chinese, among which the media and peer factors played a major role.
Manifestation of citizenship in language-in-education policy in Taiwan: discourse analysis of curricular guidelines for local language instructions
Ms. Haruna Kasai (Kyushu University)
Citizenship education entails a process of inculcating morality and ethics of being a citizen who contributes to the envisioned community. In the context of Taiwan, citizenship, and moral education which supports the former, have always been intertwined with a national agenda related to the cross-strait relationship. At the same time, citizenship in Taiwan has developed alongside the official intention to align Taiwan with international (primarily Western) discourse and practice with regard to human rights. In more recent years, the domain of the ‘citizen moulding’ has expanded from moral and citizenship education to include all school subjects, as Taiwan implemented a new curricular guideline in 2019. The educational reform placed ‘moral praxis and citizenship’ as one of the core competencies to be taught in all subjects, including local language courses. This study examines how is the concept of citizenship manifested in the local-languages-in-education policy, and how does it shape the political agenda of the curricula for various languages. The study aims to shed light on the imaginary boundary of Taiwanese citizenship by investigating official interpretation and appropriation of the diverse local languages in formal curriculum.